Tag Archives: Philippines

The Peasant Question and its Relation to the Leninist Theory of Revolution of Two-Stages

Kilusang Magbubukid ng Pilipinas - Peasant Movement of the Philippines

The following article was sent to The Marxist-Leninist by the author, Butch S. Espere:

The Peasant Question and its Relation to the Leninist Theory of Revolution of Two-Stages

By Butch S. Espere

(Author’s Note: This article, a spin-off from notes made by the author for a discussion forum at the International People’s College, Helsingor, Denmark, aims to trace the line of development of Lenin’s theory on the agrarian and peasant question in Russia, especially on the matter of how he arrived at the idea of nationalization of land as a line in the agrarian programme of the Russian Revolution and how the question is at the core of his theory of 2-stage revolution.)

Line of development of Lenin’s theory on the agrarian and peasant question:

In 1895, Lenin wrote The Development of Capitalism in Russia. In this article, he advanced the social analysis that Russia was already a capitalist society, demolishing the Narodniki myth of a “unique Russian case”. This laid the theoretical basis for the call that the proletarian revolution could already be launched in Russia.

In 1898, Lenin wrote The Tasks of Russian Social Democrats, a polemics against the “Economists” ensconced in Rabocheyo Mysl. This article broached of the democratic tasks of the proletarian revolution, prefiguring his theory of the proletarian revolution of two stages.


When Lenin joined the editorial board of Iskra right after his release from Siberian prison, there were two things that engrossed his mind and to which he devoted his revolutionary energy. One was how to unite the scattered circles of Marxists (previously known as social democrats) around his idea of establishing a party that would act as the political centre of the working class movement. But it did not end there. Lenin’s idea of a party was that of a single whole, one that is united in a common programme, a common goal, and common strategy for reaching that goal.  

Lenin talking with peasants

At the time he was sketching his plan to realize the establishment of a party, the Marxists who were scattered in so many small circles inside and outside of Russia spoke in so many tongues, some of them championing ideas that, to Lenin’s sharp eyes, placed obstacles to the immediate launching of the Russian revolution. One strand which expressed this divergence of thought was on the issue: in the given alignment of class forces in Russia, with whom should the proletariat forge alliance in launching the Russian revolution?. The majority of Marxists in Russia, Plekhanov included, answered this question, “of course, with the bourgeoisie!”  

Lenin believed otherwise. At this time, he was still to develop the strategy for the course and direction of the Russian revolution but it was already clear to him that such alliance did not lie with the bourgeoisie. He perceived early that given the conditions and character of Russian society, it could not have produced a bourgeoisie strong enough to lead even its own (bourgeois) revolution. He therefore cast the lot of the proletariat with the peasantry. This was his second concern when he was into drafting the programme of the party and it was to this that he turned his writings on the agrarian and peasant question.  

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New People’s Army Plants the Seeds of a New Philippines

This is an intersting video from Al Jazeera about the New People’s Army, led by the Communist Party of the Philippines:

For more info on the Philippine struggle for new democracy and socialism, see www.philippinerevolution.net

Jose Maria Sison: End Monopoly Capitalism to Arrest Climate Change

The following statement, “End Monopoly Capitalism to Arrest Climate Change” by Jose Maria Sison, Chairperson of the International League of People’s Struggle:

Human societies have created the bases of our survival, sustenance and advancement through the use of our natural resources in production with rudimentary tools and rising levels of science and technology. Yet in no time in history has environmental destruction been systematically brought about in most parts of the world.

The people of the world face today global poverty, economic wars and environmental crises. They are confronted by an escalating, more rapacious and vicious campaign of plunder by monopoly capitalism. This aggravates the already devastated and polluted natural environment.

The massive dumping of greenhouse gases (GHG) in the atmosphere by the operations of monopoly capitalist firms in the energy industries, manufacturing, transportation, industrial agriculture, mining, construction, etc. is now generating climatic changes that are causing massive devastation and loss of human lives around the world.

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Revolution in the Philippines and Marxist-Leninist Study

learningmarxismI have put together a comprensive study guide, broken up by subject, and shorter list of ten essential classics of Marxism-Leninism, all with the intention of making Marxist theory accessible, comprehensible, and practical, so that it may be used as weapon in the class struggle. In the same vein, here is an excerpt from Marxism-Leninism-Mao Zedong Thought as Guide to the Philippine Revolution by Armando Liwanag, Chairman of the Communist Party of the Philippines (1993) that also sheds some light on questions of Marxist study.

In 1959, a few young men and women, independent of the old merger party of the Communist and Socialist Parties, started forming study circles to read and study the works of Marx, Engels, Lenin, Stalin and Mao Zedong that could be gotten from secret collections. They initially did so amidst the open and legal studies about the problems of national independence and democracy. The Marxist-Leninist works that they read included the Communist Manifesto, Socialism: Utopian and Scientific, Wages, Prices and Profit, The Three Sources and Three Component Parts of Marxism, Imperialism: The Highest Stage of Capitalism, Two Tactics of Social Democracy, State and Revolution, The Foundations of Leninism, the Analysis of Classes in Chinese Society and Talks at the Yenan Forum on Art and Literature.

The most avid students of Marxism-Leninism read and studied Das Kapital, The Dialectics of Nature, Materialism and Empirio-Criticism, History of the CPSU (Bolsheviks), Short Course; the first edition of the Soviet-published Fundamentals of Marxism-Leninism and the Selected Works of Mao Zedong. The volumes of the selected works of the great communists began to reach the Philippines in 1962. To get hold of Marxist reading materials in the period of 1959-62 was by itself an achievement in view of the anticommunist hysteria and repressive measures since the end of World War II.

The objective of the beginners in the study of Marxism-Leninism was to seek solutions to what they perceived as the fundamental problems of the Filipino people, use Marxism-Leninism to shed light on the history and concrete circumstances of the Filipino people and find ways to resume the Philippine revolution and carry it out until victory. In the study of Marxism-Leninism, with special reference to the Philippine revolution, they sought to grasp the three components of Marxism, which are materialist philosophy, political economy and scientific socialism as laid down by Marx and Engels, developed by Lenin and Stalin and further developed by Mao Zedong.

The beginners in the study of proletarian revolutionary theory were exceedingly receptive to Mao’s teachings because of their proven correctness and success in so vast a country neighboring the Philippines and their recognized applicability to the Philippines. The most read works of Mao Zedong were On Contradiction, On Practice, the Analysis of Classes in Chinese Society, The Role of the Chinese Communist Party in the National War, Problems of Strategy in Guerrilla War Against Japan, On Protracted People’s War and On New Democracy.

The fruits of this study, theoretically, is to be found in the analysis that the CPP developed. See the CPP History page and the CPP Documents page at philippinerevolution.net.

The Communist Party of the Philippines warns against escalation of US military intervention

26cppforty04The following is from Philippine Revolution Web Central:

CPP warns against escalation of US military intervention
September 30, 2009

The Communist Party of the Philippines (CPP) today warned the United States government against using the killing of two US soldiers in Sulu yesterday to justify an escalation of its military intervention in the country and demanded an immediate pullout of all US troops from Philippine territory, an end to the local operations of the US Pacific Command’s 600-strong Joint Special Operations Task Force-Philippines (JSOTFP-P), and the termination of the one-sided Visiting Forces Agreement (VFA).

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CP of the Philippines: GMA-Obama deal to make permanent US military presence in the Philippine treasonous

The following statement of August 22, 2009, is from Communist Party of the Philippines:


The Communist Party of the Philippines (CPP) today charged Gloria Arroyo with treason “for conspiring with the US to continue and make even more permanent US military presence in the Philippines–in violation of Philippine sovereignty and the puppet government’s own constitution.”

The CPP said that “The forging of a secret agreement between the Philippine puppet and her new imperialist master has become more obvious in a recent official announcement by the US Defense Department that the stationing of US military in the Philippine will continue.”

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Communist Party of the Philippines: The State of Gloria Arroyo’s Lies


The following is from Philippine Revolution Web Central:

Communist Party of the Philippines
July 28, 2009

Gloria Arroyo’s supposed last State of the Nation Address (SONA yesterday was full of lies, fantasies and evasions. As expected by practically everyone — the opposition, the entire Filipino people and even her own allies and underlings — it was no different from her past SONA.

Not even the ghost writer believed what he wrote for her. No one, except the most naïve, believed what they heard. Not content with the orchestrated 126 “applauses” by her sycophants in the hall and hakot crowd at the gallery, her props even included canned computer-generated applause that sometimes missed the timing and became obvious.

Her pompous show yesterday was not in any way a state of the nation address. It was nothing but a “state of lies.”

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Jose Ma. Sison on the International Situation

The following is from the website of the International League of People’s Struggle (ILPS):

Salient points about the international situation

For the 3rd Congress of BAYAN USA

By Prof. Jose Maria Sison
Chairperson, ILPS International Coordinating Committee

Beloved compatriots and friends,

We, the International Coordinating Committee and the entirety of the International League of Peoples’ Struggle (ILPS), convey militant greetings of anti-imperialist solidarity to ILPS member-organization BAYAN-USA, to its leadership, its member-organizations and all the delegates to its Third Congress.

We congratulate all of you for your accumulated and current political and organizational accomplishments in the service of the Filipino communities in the USA and the entire Filipino people who are struggling for national liberation and democracy against US imperialism and the exploiting classes of big compradors and landlords in the Philippines.

We take this opportunity to express best wishes to the Filipino women who are participating in this congress and are all set to hold tomorrow the founding assembly of Gabriela-USA. This consolidation of women’s organizations is a further strengthening of the BAYAN-USA and the national democratic movement of Filipinos in the US.

My assignment is to present to you the international situation. Within the time allotted, I can give you some salient points. We can further discuss these in the open forum.

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CPP denounces Obama-Arroyo “deal” to keep the VFA

The following is from PhilippineRevolution.net:

img_463231_tPRESS RELEASE
Information Bureau
Communist Party of the Philippines

CPP denounces Obama-Arroyo “deal” to keep the VFA

March 16, 2009

The Communist Party of the Philippines (CPP) today denounced US President Barrack Obama and Gloria Arroyo for forging a “deal” over the phone this weekend to push on with the Visiting Forces Agreement (VFA) amid intense criticisms against it and widespread calls for its abrogation.

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The global and domestic economic crisis is pushing the people to wage revolutionary struggle

h_dulasamsam_min_2006The following statement is from the Communist Party of the Philippines:

January 30, 2009

The worsening global and domestic economic crisis is pressing down hard on the masses of the Filipino people. The rotten ruling system is sinking so deep, it is helpless to lift itself and is only pushing the masses into ever worse squalor. Millions are being dislocated by the crisis. It is becoming increasingly clear to the Filipino people that there is no other option but to wage revolutionary struggle to put an end to the rotten, plunderous and oppressive semicolonial and semifeudal system.

In the past few weeks, tens of thousands of Filipino workers in the semiconductor and other semimanufacturing sectors have lost their jobs as subsidiaries and comprador firms of multinationals in the export processing zones closed or drastically slowed down production. Government statistics show about 20,000 workers have been retrenched as of last week while up to 34,000 were working with reduced hours. The actual situation is much worse.

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